MDR-TB/XDR-TB Among People with Comorbidity: HIV and Drug Dependence

In October 2022, the Russian Federation is required to present its seventh periodic report to the International Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, including information on the implementation of earlier recommendations issued by the Committee concerning the prevention, treatment, and care of tuberculosis in individuals with comorbid HIV infection and drug dependency. In the present report, the authors analyze tuberculosis in Russia as of August 2022. They conclude that individuals with comorbidities remain in the highest-risk group for tuberculosis, including drug-resistant types, treatment for which has a greater duration compared to common, drug-responsive tuberculosis. Tuberculosis remains a primary driver of early mortality among those living with HIV. The authors offer practical steps that will enable rapid and effective progress in the implementation of the Committee’s recommendations.